Grape is a member of vitaceae family and vitis genus which has green flowers that only grows in clustered shape in annual branches that has grown in last year’s branches. That’s why gardeners try to made the plant to create such branches in annual Pruning so they can have more products, vitaceae family has 10 different species, some of them are decorative plants and other genus are not important except vitis genus that is considerable in terms of nutrition.
Grapes are one of the oldest known plants and count as an important food source and are important in human health.
There are lots of different statements about grapes and its medical effects and its uses in curing different disease. Grape’s tree leaves can be used in cooking and stewing its dried leaf as herbal tea can be used in gout, jaundice, diarrhea and bleedings. Grape’s branches pourer drops in early growth season (grape’s tear) can be used as a treatment for skin disease, fever, kidney stone and moles.
Most important spots in Iran that produce Grapes are west Azerbaijan, Khorasan, Arak, Qazvin and Malayer.
Grape’s economic importance
Growing grapes were common between human civilizations since ancient times. Human always used this fruit, not only its fresh fruit but also other products of grape, as a source of energy and a daily food. The ability of drying grapes and making raisins out of it, made it easier to keep and available in different times of the year.
Other products of grape such as verjuice, vinegar and etc. have an important role in consumer’s health.
High amount of grape’s and its related products producing in the world and high levels of exporting grapes between countries shows that nowadays, human knows the value of grapes.
Grapes also uses in industries, this product is a source of alcohol for medical and industrial usage.
Residue of grapes juice factories uses as animal food. Fresh grape’s leave can be used in cooking foods like Dolme, that gives a very good flavor to the food.
According to FAO’s statistics in 2006, more than 70 million ton grapes is being produced annually. Italy with 8.3 million ton, France 6.7 million ton, Spain 6.4 million ton, China 6.3 million ton, America 6.1 million ton, turkey 4 million ton and Iran with 3 million ton are ranked as first to 7th grapes producing companies in the world.
Business exchanges of fresh grapes in the world is 1500 to 700 thousand ton in the world.
Grapes ecological needs
For grape’s ripening, it has some sort of long growth season. Most of the vinifra grapes need 157 to 170 days with average temperature of 18 centigrade degree. In most of the places in Iran that grapes grow, time is enough for grape’s ripening. Sunlight and the right temperature causes better quality for grapes, because the amount of sugar, acid and grape’s astringent taste depend on sunlight.
In addition to growth season, grapes needs 2 to 3 month of winter cold for waking up of winter sleep. For satisfying this need cold between +7 to -15 centigrade degree for 2 to 3 month .
Generally grapes are native in mild temperature regions, and they are being planted between 34 to 49 latitude. In cold regions with higher than 51 latitude degree can’t ripen there fruits.
Most nature causes in grapes ripening is temperature. Although grapes need rain in winter but loss of rain can be recompense with watering.
Grape has lots of varieties, multiple factors should be considered on choosing one kind of it for planting, most important one’s are:
Type of use: fresh eating, raisins, Verjuice, Vinegar, juice and other products
Products release time for reception grapes.
Climate and soil type
Seasons and The demands of the consumer market
Due to above items in subtropical regions like Khuzestan, Sistan and balouchestan, Kermanshah, Hormozgan, Ilam and other similar regions, types with Low chilling requirement, early types, business types and early fashioned can be used. It should be told that amethystine type is not noticeable because of its low quality and in future there will be no more requirement.
In mild regions like Fars, Khorasan, west and east Azerbaijan, Qazvin, zanjan, Hamedan, Markazi, Isfahan and other similar regions, Native types can be used such as white without seed grape, red without seed grape, Asgari, Peykani, Sahebi, Rish baba, Shirazi. Fashioned types can be used in mild regions because weather don’t get less than -15 in that regions. Specialists are checking new business types that have been imported recently to see if they are Compatible.
|Product name||variety||size||Packing type||Growing Region||Comments|
|Grape||Asgari – Sanjari - Shahani||10-25 mm||3-10 kg basket or carton||Maragheh – Takestan – Tuyserkan – Kashmar - Urmia|